Businesses are financed with debt, equity and sometimes, preferred stock. We will not consider preferred stock in this discussion, because few private companies have it. The discount rate for developing MVTC, or Market Value of Total Capital, is called the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC). In this post, we will discuss the concept of the WACC and its use as an investment tool, illustrate how to develop it, and then show how it can be used to develop indications of MVTC.
We continue the series today with the topic of Corporate Finance, which is about maximizing the value of a firm or business. The three parts of the corporate finance decision tree for public and private businesses are: an investment (or reinvestment decision), also called capital budgeting; the financing decision, also called capital structure; and the dividend or distribution decision. By addressing each of these decisions, corporate managers and boards determine what will be done with available cash flows. The effectiveness with which they make these decisions determines, in large measure, the success of value creation for private firms.
Did you ever wonder where EBITDA multiples for private companies come from? Everyone talks about transaction pricing in terms of multiples of EBITDA. Transactions in many industries for attractive private businesses often occur in the range of 4.0x to 6.0x EBITDA, plus or minus a bit. Why? Every business owner should have an idea.
In the last post, we talked about the basic valuation equation. This equation is derived from something called the Gordon Model (and a couple of other names). We said before that valuation is a combination of art and science. It is time for a bit of the science. We’ll introduce a few equations in support of the basic valuation equation, so don’t let this bother you. After we see the “science” underlying this equation and understand a few more things about valuation, we can talk about more interesting questions.
With the election of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States, the stock market has rallied in what has come to be called the Trump Rally. The Trump Rally has been fueled in part by the anticipation of cuts in corporate taxes, which was a campaign and early-presidency goal. Something is happening with the multiples of earnings placed on public shares. So what is likely to happen to multiples for successful private companies if the Trump tax cut is implemented? Let’s take a look.
I have used this blog (and my former blogs) as a place to develop new materials. In late 2014, I began a series of posts to develop a means of building multiples of EBITDA using what I call the Adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model. After peer review, I was encouraged to submit an article to the Business Valuation Review, which readers of this blog can obtain convenient access to.
Dell Inc. engaged in a management buyout (“MBO”) in October 2013 that effectively took the Company private, leaving Michael Dell in control (75% of its stock) with a financial sponsor (25% of its stock). The majority of shareholders tendered their shares, and received the offered consideration. Certain shareholders dissented, setting in motion an appraisal proceeding in […]
In a recent series of posts, we developed a means to develop direct and credible multiples of EBITDA applicable to specific valuation situations. This is important because EBITDA is part of the universal business language and is a term that appraisers, business owners and market participants understand. It is also important because until now, one way to capitalize EBITDA has been by using (often incomplete and/or dated) guideline transactions in other private or public companies. The other way has been through the use of guideline public companies, which may suffer in comparability based on size and many other differences.
Since writing the posts, I have had a number of opportunities to discuss the methodology with other appraisers and with clients. These conversations have encouraged me to write this single post to summarize this “new” method. In this post, we lay out the methodology for capitalizing EBITDA using the Adjusted CAPM in one place.
A key assumption necessary to develop capitalization rates and valuation multiples for capitalizing EBITDA is that of the EBITDA Depreciation Factor. We begin by examining the relationship between Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) and Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (EBITDA). We also test the general discussion with some market evidence.
Technically, there are three valuation approaches, the income approach, the market approach, and the asset approach. Within approaches, there are valuation methods. For example, the single period income capitalization method is a method within the income approach. Finally, there are techniques within methods. The single period income capitalization of net income or net cash flow is one such technique. This post introduces a single period income capitalization technique to capitalize EBITDA. It should be of interest to business owners, business appraisers and market participants.